Capital markets are markets for buying and selling equity and debt instruments. Capital markets channel savings and investment between suppliers of capital such as retail investors and institutional investors, and users of capital like businesses, government and individuals. Capital markets are vital to the functioning of an economy, since capital is a critical component for generating economic output. Capital markets include primary markets, where new stock and bond issues are sold to investors, and secondary markets, which trade existing securities.
Capital markets are a broad category of markets facilitating the buying and selling of financial instruments. In particular, there are two categories of financial instruments that capital in which markets are involved. These are equity securities, which are often known as stocks, and debt securities, which are often known as bonds. Capital markets involve the issuing of stocks and bonds for medium-term and long-term durations, generally terms of one year or more.
An internal audit is the examination, monitoring and analysis of activities related to a company's operations, including its business structure, employee behavior and information systems. Internal audit regulations, such as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, have increased corporate requirements for performing internal audits. Audits are important components of a company's risk management as they help to identify issues before they become substantial problems, such as attempts to steal intellectual property.
An internal audit begins by an auditor assessing current processes and procedures. The auditor then analyzes and compares the results to internal control objectives. He determines whether the results comply with internal policies and procedures as well as state and federal laws. Finally, the auditor compiles and presents an audit report to the business owner.
When it comes to external auditing, there are two different categories of auditors. First, there is an external or statutory auditor who works independently to evaluate financial reporting, and then there are external cost auditors who evaluate cost statements and sheets to see if they’re free of misstatements or fraud. Both of these types of auditors follow a set of standards different from that of the company or organization hiring them to do the work.
Internal auditors, as the name implies, are employed by the company or organization for whom they are performing the audit. To the best of their ability, internal auditors provide information to the board, managers, and other stakeholders on the accuracy of their books and the efficacy of their internal systems. Consultant auditors, while not working internally, use the standards of the company they are auditing as opposed to a separate set of standards. These types of auditors are used when an organization doesn’t have the resources to audit certain parts of their own operations.